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At the time of contact with Europeans, all Mocama villages in present-day Jacksonville were part of the powerful chiefdom known as the Saturiwa, centered around the mouth of the St. French Huguenot explorer Jean Ribault charted the St.
Johns River in 1562, calling it the River of May because that was the month of his discovery.
They named the town Jacksonville, after Andrew Jackson. Hart, residents wrote a charter for a town government, which was approved by the Florida Legislative Council on February 9, 1832.
During the American Civil War, Jacksonville was a key supply point for hogs and cattle being shipped from Florida to feed the Confederate forces.
The Spanish renamed the fort San Mateo, and following the ejection of the French, St.
Augustine's position as the most important settlement in Florida was solidified. Johns River at a narrow point, which the Seminole called Wacca Pilatka and the British called the Cow Ford; these names ostensibly reflect the fact that cattle were brought across the river there.
Ribault erected a stone column at his landing site near the river's mouth, claiming the newly discovered land for France.
Though no battles were fought in Jacksonville proper, the city changed hands several times between Union and Confederate forces.In the Skirmish of the Brick Church in 1862, Confederates won their first victory in the state. In February 1864 Union forces left Jacksonville and confronted a Confederate Army at the Battle of Olustee, going down to defeat.However, Union forces captured a Confederate position at the Battle of St. Union forces retreated to Jacksonville and held the city for the remainder of the war.with which the city government consolidated in 1968.
Consolidation gave Jacksonville its great size and placed most of its metropolitan population within the city limits.
In March 1864 a Confederate cavalry confronted a Union expedition in the Battle of Cedar Creek.