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338 Last line: Read: "Some apply it to a small chest." 347 The Sudbury Communion Table. 352 Read "home" instead of "hearth" in line beginning, "Since men etc." 378 Trestle table, at right. The author has done most of the photographic work personally. It departs from the conventional foliage pattern which appears on the bottom rail. The earliest need of man emerging from barbarism was a receptacle for valuable belongings. The word chest, under innumerable forms, appears in our earliest literature. The bottom rail carries one row of the pencil and pearl ornament. Size: Length, 471^ inches; hight, 265^ inches; front to back, 20X inches. The length of the chest above is 52 inches; hight, ^oj4 inches, as three or four inches are missing from the feet; front to back, 21 inches. [ID] AN Oak Tulip-Panel Chest, with the Connecticut Cross Panel, from the Henry Stearns Collection, Hartford. Instead of applied spindles and chamfered corners on the drawers, we find painted tulip decoration, thus carrying out the carved tulip design in the side panels. It is very seldom found on chests, except in the last decade of the 17th or the first decade of the i8th Century. The size is about 44 inches long and 19 inches "deep," that is, from the front to the back. Size: 44 inches long; 4234 inches high, and 1834 inches front to back. [21] ^if's'^a F ^^v '^^^^''^BP ■f f^'^'^^W W- ■ L A THREE-DRAWER Hadley Chest, owned by Mr. It will be seen that all the Hadley chests here shown with two and three drawers have four end panels, which are plain. It had been for many generations in the family from which it was purchased. Each also carries two lines of molding with sets of duplicate notches, roughly resembling the pencil and pearl motive, which, however, is absent from this chest. The absence of a drawer might suggest a date ten years earlier. Size: 39K inches long, 38 inches high; ig^i inches from front to back. The two-parts are separable on the medial line, which should be covered by a molding, over the joint, but was not so covered when the chest was found in the rough state. The piece was, so it is said, brought into Boston to sell, from Dedham. These little pieces are sometimes called child's furniture. The end does not show, owing to reflections, the large single tulip, like that on page 62. The incipient pair of missing legs is represented by the acorn drops. These minor marks of years, however, only endear the piece to us. One may hope to see it restored ultimately, as the somewhat glossy appearance it presents makes a good picture of it impossible. The chest is 36 inches high, and the frame is ^l Yi by 16 inches. On page 96 is an example of an all-ball-turned chest-on-frame, made with painted panels. The chests are generally a little larger and may have suggested desks. Properly following analogies, we should look for antique chests, of a large size, on frames. But we know of no large chests, set on legs, and with a drawer under. The discussion of this matter in Lyon is very interesting, but developments since his volume should have added more to our knowledge than we can claim to have gained. Only one who loved ornament for its own sake would have taken pains to work out so many little panels as we see in this box. The great weight of the drawers, their large side runs, and the four- inch posts, have a massive effect. The names of these persons will be credited under the pictures of their pieces unless an owner has re- quested that his name be omitted. Morris Schwartz, has unusual carving on the stiles and top rail of a very handsome character. The top rail, between rows of pencil and pearl ornament, carries a scroll. This chest is really a variant of the sunflower pattern, with the sunflower left out! The material, as that of nearly all carved chests, is oak, with pine in lid, back, bottom and drawer bottoms. This chest is in a remarkably good state of preservation, and, in this particular, it stands rather high on its legs. A., and are carved in the conventional style on the center panel. Give a piece of furniture a specific name and at once you enhance its desirability to many collectors. Erving from any malice afore- thought, as no one had then discovered this tendency of the collector. The only other Hadley chest known with three drawers is in the Deerfield Museum. [23] AN Oak Chest, with Double-arched Center Panel. The chest was found in Con- necticut, the home of most American oak chests. The principal variation in style is in the center panel. B., differentiates the chest from the simple three panel chests. The pine feet, being part of the end board, give a date perhaps as late as 1700-10. A rare specimen, in walnut, practically all original. [75] [76] [77\ [78] [79] ON page 77 is a rare arrangement of highboy legs, following the usual design of the corresponding cross-stretcher lowboy. The star of the center panel also originally had eight points. Its back legs follow the style of the court cup- board, instead of being turned like the front legs. The turnings of the front legs and stretcher are extremely rare, being what we may call the reverse of the ball turning, or a series of turned flutes, into which a ball-turned piece would fit exactly. The false drawer has knobs instead of the usual bosses. In passing from the treatment of these pieces we cannot fail to see how closely they resemble the boxes which follow, where the boxes have flat tops. All the shelves being of pine, together with the backs and drawer bottoms, and the posts being of maple, the cupboard is established as a thoroughly American struc- ture. This statement is made with trembling because no [vii] one can be absolute in knowledge of this kind. Miner of Green- field, who also found in the same vicinity the three-drawer Hadley Chest, on page 22. This chest was found in South- eastern New Hampshire, in the hands of an owner who had brought it from the Connecticut river, in Southern New Hampshire. The question of correct taste in chest ornament is not the only question as regards desirability. The double arched panel, with its keystones and capitals, reminds us of similar details on court cupboards. This chest has the rare arrangement of two drawers end-to-end. It was bought by the author in Boston, and taken to the Webb House, Wethersfield. On page 79 is a remarkably good curly maple effect. Its most striking feature is the doubled stretcher work of the ball-turned base, a markedly good design for strength, and possibly unique in this respect also. They now hold values parallel with those placed on large spindle-decorated chests. It certainly adds to the realism of a family about to be insti- tuted to have one receptacle into which its treasures can be gathered. It was the symbol, in substantial form of the greatest social institution, and held that proud position until the cradle supplanted it. The mold on the rail below the drawer is not seen on some of the other chests-on-frames. [115] A LITTLE sturdy desk of pine, in the Rhode Island School of Design. It is of pine above with a maple frame — ^the usual construction of simple desks of its period. Comparing this desk with that opposite, one at once feels the quainter earlier character of that desk. [117] A DESK with Turned Frame, the property of Mr. The butterfly hinge and the general character of the desk proper is almost exactly the same as the author's on the preceding pages Frame 233:4 inches high, 29 inches long, i8j/^ inches deep. His mother was Lucretia Par- menter, daughter of Abel. This book shows few pieces of furniture that have been illustrated before, except in some instances of fuller restorations of pieces previously shown. The piece was found near Deerfield, about 19 16, by Dr. The so-called chest hinge, a strap with an offset, is seldom seen. For in- stance, a grotesque head appears on the center of the drawer, page 17, whereas here a different motive prevails. The interesting enumeration includes: drops, bosses, nail-heads, shadow mold, diamonds, rosettes, blocked corners, turned ornaments, an arch, keystone and other arch-structure blocks, and moldings around panels and drawer. An important feature of this chest is its two sets of end-to-end drawers, scarcely known elsewhere. Its American origin should not be challenged as it has pine in the lid and bottoms of the frame and drawer. [91] ON the previous page is a good example of the decorated panel chest-on- frame. They are a type so marked as to attract much attention. At least half of them have come to light within a year, as their dis- tinctive features made them sought as soon as they were known to exist. We lament the going out of style of an article so attractive and con- venient. It is peculiar in having a perfectly plain drawer front. The carving is asymmetrical, and rather more attractive on that account. The dimension of the square of the legs is 2^ inches. The piece is shown prac- tically in the original state. Desks of this character were only one degree removed from desk boxes. While the handles on this piece bespeak a date of at least 1710, which is borne out by double arch molding, the turning leads us to suppose that the date is fully as early. His widow, from whom the writer acquired the cupboard, now survives him. [164I ON the left is an excel- lent small cupboard, designed to be fastened up on a side wall. It is one of the best and the rarest specimen of the kind . [165] On the right, at the bottom of this page is a httle cup- board to fasten on a wall. This is probably to be accounted for by the fact that a recessed cupboard was ordinarily used. The habit of recessing cupboards was very popular in the early years of the Eighteenth Century. This cupboard may be seen by the public, with the delightful old house. One would say the paneling came later, but the date of the houses themselves is that of the paneled period. On the right is a little corner wall cupboard dating perhaps before 1700. For variety's sake, and to please all, it may be well to reverse it April ist, annually. There are also simple corner cupboards in the same house which originally had no doors above. The author is indebted to many persons for information and for the privilege of photographing their rare furniture. Though the short stiles are plain, the end stiles carry double rows of "pencil and pearl" carving. The dates run from 1680, or more certainly from 1690 to 1710. Size: 4i}4 inches long; 18^ inches from front to back; 35^4 inches high. [ 20 A TWO-DRAWER Hadley Chest, owned by the author. The carving here differs slightly from that on the preceding chest, especially in the bottom rail. Erving inquiring in 1883, if a certain friend had seen his "Hadley" chest apparently originated the name. The historical record is often completed, or a mooted point of structure or decor- ation is cleared up by an unusual chest. The additional decoration afforded by the pencil and pearl molding renders the chest very rich The feet have lost somewhat by wear. The similarity of this to the opposite chest make it morally certain that the two came from the same neighborhoods. The foliated scroll on the center panel, with the initials W. It is such pieces as these, so rare, so appeal- ing, that make the quest of antique furniture what it is. Below is a miniature pine chest of drawers: Owner: Mr. In the moldings we have the style of a somewhat earlier time. The piece is in an unrestored state and therefore shows only one of the two arches of the side panels. A specimen of this style of chests in the possession of Mr. This piece is in beautiful condition and the turnings are very handsome — the best per- haps to be found on a decorated piece of the kind. [93] ON the next page is an oak chest-on-frame, which differs strikingly from the other examples we show. If they are found in the next few years as rapidly as in the five years just passed, they will rival the sunflower chest in numbers. Sudbury was settled from Watertown and undoubtedly the cupboard was brought with other plenishings for the new garrison house. The main feature of the book, however, is that most of the examples here shown were until recently unknown. The specimens found are in one, two and three drawers; the one drawer style being extremely rare; the two drawer style predominating; and there are but two known pieces in the three drawer style. It is of very recent discovery and bears out the uniform source of this class of chests — on the Connecticut river section of Massachusetts. Quaintness, rarity, odd features, even the over- doing of some features, are all elements entering into the matter. The pointed dentils above, and the three lines of notched carving below are excellent, and rare features. It is enriched by pointed dentils under the lid, and by three rows of tooth or notch carving. Size: 44 inches long; 2^14 inches high; 18 inches from front to back. The handles, which of course are of the usual size for a large chest of drawers, display very quaintly the comparative- ly small size of the draw- ers. On page 78 is a specimen in herring-bone walnut veneer. Another astonishing feature is the beautiful urn turning of the front posts reminding one of court cupboards. There is a difference of opinion as between the two styles, with perhaps a slight present leaning to the decorated pattern. Erving has the spray decoration on an unpainted panel, and is fully more attractive in method of application. Another specimen of the style in the possession of the Rhode Island School of Design lacks the front stretcher, but is otherwise very admirable. [92I A CHEST-ON-FRAME described on the previous page. A few years since there were not above a half dozen chests-on-frames known. The very heavy lid with its excellent "thumb-nail" molding, the heavy dove- tailing, the flush drawer, the heavy turning, bespeak a date inside the Seventeenth Century, probably 1680-1700. It is the chagrin of the writer that he once failed to obtain this desk. Joshua went to live in the garrison house at about 10 years of age.

The Bible no one would steal, not because it lacked value, but owing to the fear of sacrilege. The Bible was in many cases, a huge, very expensive volume. People became ashamed of paneling, because their neighbors did not have it.

A philosopher or a poet might start a train of reflection or senti- ment on the fact that the furniture, and even the initials survive the memory of their owners, who are otherwise lost to us. Sometimes the supports are en- tirely removed, but some trace of a framed rail for the drawer to rest upon can always be found, generally in the form of a rabbet on the back stile. Size: 44,' 4 inches long; 24^^ inches high; 18 inches from front to back. This chest was bought in Boston, but found, probably, in Connecticut. Altogether we have here a series of carved pine chests which the collector of oak may hold lightly, but which are, in spite of that, very quaint and very important in the history of furniture. Among nomads, where it was set down, there was home; when it was taken up, the march followed. Romance, tragedy, the joy of the bride, the last memory of a long dead owner, all gathered about a chest. This piece should be compared with the wardrobe of pine and whitewood, owned by the same person, on page 145. Owing to the difficulty of bringing out the red and black decoration we do not attempt to show the chest, merely using it to serve as a base for the model. B." while the center panel of the drawer below contains the initials "A. Let us say here quite emphatically that none of the pictures in this book are made to scale. The end panel is blocked like those on pages 61 and 56. Where boxes have cabinets as well as slant fronts, of course they are designed for desks. In both the same rather unsatisfactory pillars appear, but in that piece there is the rare feature of carving on the back stile. There is an immense cornice, two doors, a drawer, and very big ball feet. jsa [ 149] ON the next page is a most attractive side wall cupboard, belonging to Mr. The term dresser was in common use up to fifty years ago, applied to any broad shelf in the culinary end of the house. The supporting uprights when scrolled as here, dignified the work sufficiently to make it rank as furniture. A feature which gives attraction, and a sense of earliness, is the heavy construction, the boards being a flush inch in thick- ness. Where they have been kept for con- venience, they have also been removed to a lower back room and beheaded.

The rooms themselves were so carefully furnished that it has been thought im- portant to show them, despite the figures. In instances also the faces of husband and wife appeared, carved on the panels. It was designed for the house into which it was to go, and for a very specific purpose. This chest never had a drawer, but not a few chests, on careful exami- nation, show that a drawer is missing. It is 47 inches long; 26 inches high; 19 inches from front to back. A Connecticut Sunflower Court Cupboard was ejected from the same house to "make room." [81 L.- AN Oak Tulip Chest. Lyon, in his very accurate work, states that English collectors have never seen an English chest, oak and pine in parts. That chests are sometimes falsely dated, we are certain. Experts in carving are themselves deceived in this matter. All the heavy moldings are carried around the ends, a feature which is perhaps unique in pine. A very peculiar line of carving under the large lunettes suggests small horizontal arched flutings, overlying each other. It was the first effort at joineiy, and the last achievement of art. They are in flat, light color, and make us wish [62] -^^^^ f.-^^^^y.^ AN Oak Ball-Foot Chest of Drawers. The center panel of the top drawer contains the initials "R. But in general it was a receptacle for valuable papers or other articles too small or too important to place in a chest. [125] A PRESS Cupboard in the Brooklyn Museum of Fine Arts. This example is free from extensive restor- ation and therefore better. A very rare cupboard, with but one or two known like it. On page 152 is the first example we show of an open dresser. On page 153 is a corner cupboard or dresser — on the dividing line because the lack of any facing board above the main shelf brings the piece into close cousinship with the dresser. One reason for the scarcity of such dressers is that, being very large pieces, they were generally built in.

138 A cupboard in this style, but with drawers below, willed by Gov. These dressers, as here, often ran across the entire available wall space on a side of the room. [159 1 IN the lower cupboard the panel construction of the door is squared behind and mitered-in part in front, on the same board — a strong and ingenious device. Hence the base mold is cut off before reaching the corner. I161] A WALNUT Wardrobe, in the later Pennsylvania style. This is said to be the oldest house now standing, in the village, but the Michael Griswold house may dispute the claim. The cup- board was found in a very weathered condition, in 1921. The smaller pieces of 17th Century furniture passed out of sight almost entirely. The piece may possibly have been intended to rest upon a table or a chest of drawers, but as now it could also have been attached to a wall. ZMm Mj,^i^:^-*^'i^^.^^iiam:^-^-^ THE little recessed cupboard above is built over a fireplace in the Williams Place in South Easton, dating from 1717.

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The end boards of the dresser are very boldly and handsomely scrolled. This cupboard shows interesting variations from the other two shown, principally in the rosettes, or repeated sunflowers on drawer and architrave. This piece shows the rat-tail hinge which is characteristic of the region. The scrolling of the end boards is the best we have seen. I 163 THE side of the parlor in the Robinson house, Wethersfield, built about 1737. The cupboard is remarkable for its great bight and for the elaborate carving of the capi- tals and the cornice. j M^ THE quaintest little cupboard which has fallen under the au- thor's eye is this hat box with drawers under.

169 A beautiful walnut cupboard, in the former Nutting collection. At a time also when optical knowledge was small, a Bible with large print was neces- sary for the aged, who had recourse to it often. But a modern desk box persisted, and is found today in mahogany in many homes. In this case the dresser is built against a remarkable sheathed wall, the boards of which run horizontally and are beautifully molded. Wellington, who has also two more very handsome specimens. The construction of these cupboards, like that of the kas, is contrived with wedges and slots. I162I p- 3t A FINE Dresser, belonging to Shreve, Crump & Low, of Boston. By an ingenious offset of the hinges they are made secure by rivets through the body.

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